Special Reports: 1997-1999 Release Dates

25 Years of Uniform Crime Reports in Hawaii, 1975-1999

February 22, 2001 – The Department of the Attorney General released a special report comparing Hawaii and United States crime rates over the 25-year history of statewide annual reporting, from 1975-1999.

Hawaii’s overall violent crime rate and rates for individual violent offense categories (including murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) were consistently below the comparable U.S. rates in almost all years. The lone exception was forcible rape in 1982.

Hawaii’s overall property crime rate (based on reported burglaries, motor vehicle thefts, and larceny-thefts) was consistently higher than the respective U.S. rate. However, overall property crime rates in any jurisdiction are strongly influenced by the large number of larceny-thefts that are reported, and larceny-theft is the only offense that has had a consistently higher rate in Hawaii. Hawaii’s burglary rate has remained near the U.S. rate since 1980, and its motor vehicle theft rate was lower than the U.S. rate in most years since 1981.

Tracked separately from the other major offenses, Hawaii’s arson rate was lower than the U.S. rate in most years since 1983.

The report also summarizes the major decline in Hawaii’s crime rates, from near record highs in 1995 to record and near record lows in 1999. Attorney General Earl Anzai stated, “The decrease in crime during these 4 years was truly remarkable, and a credit to our communities and the criminal justice system.”

Crime and Justice In Hawaii:
Hawaii Household Survey Report, 1998

January 26, 1999 — Attorney General Margery S. Bronster announced the release of the state’s fifth annual crime victimization survey, Crime and Justice in Hawaii: 1998 Hawaii Household Survey Report. Last Spring, 1,465 randomly selected state residents were asked about their experiences with crime and their perceptions of the criminal justice system in Hawaii in 1997. The results are based on the responses of 879 recipients (60%) who agreed to participate in the survey. Attorney General Bronster stated that, “This survey is important because it provides another way of looking at crime in Hawaii — it helps us get a better handle on the scope of the problem.”

Forty-eight percent of the survey respondents reported being crime victims in 1997, down from nearly 55% in 1996. This is the first decrease in the victimization rate since the survey’s inception in 1993. The vast majority of victimization was accounted for by property offenses, with 45% of the respondents reporting that they were property crime victims in 1997. Twelve percent of the respondents reported being the victims of violent crime.

City & County of Honolulu residents reported the highest crime victimization rate (51%), followed by residents of Hawaii County (48%), Maui County (41%), and Kauai County (29%).

Forty-one percent of the respondents were afraid to walk alone at night near their homes, and the fear of crime prevented 61% of them from doing some of the things that they would like to do, at least some of the time. When asked about the seriousness of the crime problem in Hawaii, over half of the respondents (52%) felt that it was “very serious.” Down from 63% the previous year, this was the first decline in this statistic during the survey’s history. Over three-fourths (77%) of the respondents indicated that they expected to be victimized in the upcoming year, with nearly two-fifths (39%) expecting to be violent crime victims. Sixty-two percent of the respondents felt that the police in their neighborhood were doing a good or excellent job; this was the fourth straight increase in this statistic. However, less than half of the respondents who were crime victims in 1997 said that they reported these incidents to the police. The cost of living was identified as the problem that worried the respondents the most (59%), followed by crime (41%) and unemployment (33%).

The report recognizes that many of the survey statistics may be inflated due to some respondents including crimes that occurred prior to the survey’s twelve-month time frame. In addition, crime victims and persons who are especially fearful, worried, and/or angry about crime may be disproportionately likely to participate in this type of survey. Paul Perrone, the Attorney General’s Chief of Research remarked that, “Official police statistics depend on victims reporting crimes to the police, and we know that this doesn’t always happen. On the other hand, victims are probably more likely than non-victims to fill out our survey, and sometimes they include crimes that happened earlier than the period we’re studying. Thus, the actual nature and extent of crime in Hawaii probably lies somewhere between the police stats and our survey results.”

According to the most recent edition of the FBI’s Crime in the United States, Hawaii has the eleventh lowest violent crime rate, but the sixth highest property crime rate and the ninth highest total crime rate among the 50 states and Washington, DC. The latest edition of the Department of the Attorney General’s Crime in Hawaii report shows that the state’s crime rate fell 9% in 1997 and 17% during the previous two-year period.

Crime and Justice In Hawaii:
Hawaii Household Survey Report, 1997

(Released January, 1998)

Read the Star Bulletin’s article about the release of the survey

Crime and Justice In Hawaii:
Hawaii Household Survey Report, 1996

(Released November, 1996)

Data Brief:
Drug Offense Arrests in Hawaii, 1982-1996

(October 1997)

This is the first installment of a data-oriented report series designed to provide frequently requested statistical summaries and extrapolated calculations from various sources. “Drug Offense Arrests in Hawaii, 1982-1996” recounts Uniform Crime Report arrest statistics for Hawaii over time, and by county, age, gender, and ethnicity.

Domestic Violence-Related Murders

(March 1998/Updated June 1998)

Felony Sexual Assault Arrests in Hawaii

Volume 5, Issue 2 (January 1997)

Attorney General Margery S. Bronster today announced the release of the first Crime Trend Series report on sexual assaults in Hawaii. Highlights of the preliminary report include the following statistics:

  • There were 448 registered sex offenders in Hawaii as of September 1, 1996.
  • 545 sex offenders were incarcerated in the state as of January 1, 1997.
  • Between 1993-1996, 1043 persons were arrested for felony sex offenses.

Arrestee data reflected the following sample demographics:

  • 98.8% were males; 1.2% were females
  • Approximately 30% were unskilled laborers and about 25% were unemployed.
  • Just under 15% had prior sex offense arrests (including misdemeanors), and about 10% had at least one prior felony sex offense arrest.
  • In rank order, the three largest arrestee ethnic groups were Caucasians (27.6%), Hawaiians/Part Hawaiians (17.9%), and Filipinos (17.4%). It is likely that these categories include many arrestees who are of mixed ethnic backgrounds.

Notable victim demographics include the following:

  • Slightly more than 90% were females; just under 10% were males.
  • Ages ranged from 1 to 85 years old. More than half the victims were younger than 18; of these, almost 70% were 13 or younger.
  • The most frequently reported victim ethnicities were Caucasian (29.3%), Hawaiian/Part Hawaiian (24.7%), “Other” such as Spanish or Micronesian, etc. (13.9%), and Filipino (11.1%).

Victim – arrestee relationship statistics include:

  • The greatest proportion of arrestees and victims shared the same home address, but those who either lived in completely different areas from one another, or were neighbors, each comprised almost as many cases.
  • A little over 85% of the victims knew their alleged attackers. Slightly over one-third of the data are accounted for by cases in which the alleged offender and victim were members of the same family, and just under another one-third reflect cases in which they were acquaintances. Alleged offenders were strangers to the victims in about 10% of the cases.
  • Almost 90% of the victims less than 18 years old knew their alleged attackers; this proportion decreased to just under 80% for adult victims. Child victims were associated with about 60% of the arrestee-victim ìneighborî relationships, while adult victims appeared in almost 65% of the ìstrangerî relationships.

From a different data set of local sexual assaults, it was found that almost 60% of the attacks had occurred in private residences, with victim residences being the most common locations. Victim residences outnumbered other residences by a considerable margin.

Extant sex offender research generally focuses on those who have been convicted of sex crimes-this report provides the first detailed arrest-level look at felony sexual assaults in Hawaii. Subsequent Crime Trend Series reports will explore these data in greater detail, and will present discussion of several other topics related to sexual assault in Hawaii.

Juvenile Arrests, Hawaii versus U.S. Selected 1996 Statistics

(March 1998)

Juvenile Robbery Arrests in Honolulu: An Overview

(January 1999)

Attorney General Margery S. Bronster announced the release of a new crime report, Juvenile Robbery Arrests in Honolulu: An Overview. The report reveals that juvenile arrests throughout the state have generally decreased since the mid-1980s, but arrests of juveniles for violent offenses have increased. Closer examination reveals that this rise in juvenile arrests for violent offenses is largely attributable to an increase in the reporting of robbery incidents that result in arrests. “Basic crime statistics don’t always tell the whole story,” the Attorney General cautioned. An increase in robbery arrests between 1991 and 1997 was mostly due to increased reporting of youths for “hi-jacking” small amounts of cash from other youths in or around schools.” As a result of this collaborative effort between the Honolulu Police Department, University of Hawaii Youth Gang Project, Juvenile Justice Information Committee, Department of Education, and my Department’s criminologists, we have learned that the upward trend is not simply the result of more kids committing more hard core street crimes. Rather, these bullying incidents are being reported to the police more often,” Bronster noted.

The study was conducted by the Youth Gang Project and coordinated by the Attorney General’s research staff. Comparing 1991 to 1997, there were notable differences in the 1997 sample:

  • smaller percentage of adult victims
  • younger arrestees
  • lower value of items taken
  • lower percentage of gang-related incidents
  • fewer and less severe victim injuries

Interviews with police detectives and school administrators confirmed that bullying situations are now more likely to result in police notification and arrests. “Essentially, what we learned is that the increase in juvenile robbery arrests was due to a gradual shift in the response to incidents that occur in and around schools, rather than to a change in actual youth behaviors,” noted Dr. Meda Chesney-Lind, Principal Investigator of the Youth Gang Project. Paul Perrone, the Attorney General’s Chief of Research added that, “We do not wish to secondguess this policy shift or to downplay the seriousness of some juvenile crimes. However, it is important to identify the actual nature of what appears, at first glance, to be to an escalation of juvenile violence.”

The report makes several recommendations, including strengthening schools’ anti-bullying and ethnic/cultural sensitivity curricula, increasing adult supervision of school grounds and the areas around schools, and conserving juvenile justice resources for the measured, efficient, and consistent sanctioning of serious acts of youth violence. Attorney General Bronster concluded that, “The experiences of other jurisdictions across the country have consistently indicated that a balanced, ‘get smart’ approach to juvenile crime holds the most promise.”

Media Presentations of Juvenile Crime in Hawaii:
Wild in the Streets?

Volume 6, Issue 1 (February 1998)

Attorney General Margery S. Bronster announced the release of a Crime Trend Series report that examines media coverage of juvenile crime in Hawaii during the last decade.  While official arrest statistics and other data on at-risk youth demonstrate that juvenile crime in Hawaii has been mostly stable or on the decline since the mid-1980s, a content analysis of Hawaii’s major newspapers revealed that media attention has skyrocketed since 1993.  Up from only a few stories per year at the start of the study period, articles about juvenile crime appeared almost every other day in 1996.  Statewide survey data reveal that newspapers are the primary source of most people’s crime information, and that more than nine out of ten residents believe juvenile crime is on the rise.  Attorney General Bronster observed that, “The dramatic increase in media coverage has not provided people with a very accurate gauge of the actual extent of juvenile crime in Hawaii, yet public perception seems to closely parallel the media explosion.”

Report highlights include the following:

  • Juvenile arrests (other than those for non-criminal offenses such as running away from home) decreased 11% between 1987 and 1996 in Hawaii, and arrests for the eight most serious offenses fell 21%; but the number of local newspaper articles about juvenile delinquency and youth gangs increased from 5 in 1987 to 169 in 1996.  While only one initial report of a specific juvenile crime incident was printed in 1987, there were 76 such articles in 1996.
  • During the ten-year period 1987-1996, the newspapers ran 649 articles about juvenile delinquency and youth gangs.  Of these, almost half (319) were about gangs, and in some years gang-related articles outnumbered all other juvenile crime articles by as much as ten to one.  Gang activity, whether or not it accounts for the most and/or the most serious juvenile crime in Hawaii, appears to be the most newsworthy juvenile crime topic in the state.
  • While the appearance of articles about specific youth gang incidents followed the same pattern of a low volume output followed by a significant post-1992 increase, feature stories about gang members, gang life, and community responses to gang problems were run in a more cyclical fashion, with larger numbers of these stories appearing in 1989, 1991, 1994, and 1996.  Regardless of the actual extent of gang-related crime, media interest in youth gangs seems to run in approximately two-year cycles.
  • Results from the Department of the Attorney General’s 1997 statewide crime victimization survey show that 92% of respondents believe incorrectly that the number of juvenile arrests in Hawaii increased between 1992 and 1996; of these, more than two-thirds believe that there has been a large increase.  Conversely, only 2% of the respondents believe correctly that juvenile arrests decreased during this period.
  • Other results from the same survey indicate that the top three sources of respondents’ crime information are newspapers (83%), television (75%), and radio (55%).  Thus, mass media account for the most common sources of crime information. 

Criminologists have been focusing on media research in recent years.  “Nationally, there has been a lot of concern about the manner in which the media report crime news, and more and more local criminal justice professionals have been echoing this concern,” Bronster added.

Model Drug Law Conference:
A Symposium on Crime in Hawaii

(January 1998)

Year in and year out, the residents of Hawaii place crime at or near the top of their list of concerns, yet “crime in Hawaii” is difficult, if not impossible, to consider as a single concept. The occurrence of different types of crimes varies over time and across demographic and geographic boundaries, while a bewildering array of factors (for instance, crime prevention efforts, socioeconomics, law enforcement focus, legislative initiatives, and even the “moral standards of society”) may interrelate and contribute to the overall nature and extent of crime.

Yet one thing is certain acute substance abuse plays a critical role in more crimes and tragedies than could ever be counted. Whether it is the property crimes committed by drug addicts, the lives lost to alcohol abuse, or the violence associated with the greed of the narcotics trade, there can be little doubt that substance abuse is directly linked to crime.

In an effort to address some of these issues, the Department of the Attorney General recently hosted a one-day symposium on drugs and crime in Hawaii. Although it was understood that such a broad subject cannot be comprehensively addressed in a single day, it was hoped that, by bringing together a broad cross section of the community, a package of recommendations could be arrived at and later presented to the Legislature. We feel that this has been accomplished.

In this report you will find a review of the crime symposium proceedings, along with the recommendations of the symposium participants. We have also drawn from a variety of sources to compile a general reference section on “crime in Hawaii.” We hope that our state legislators might support and follow through on the recommendations contained herein, and that readers of this report will learn more about one of the most important, and difficult, issues facing our state.

Margery S. Bronster
Attorney General

Motor Vehicle Theft in Hawaii, 1980-1995

Volume 5, Issue 1 (February 1997)

Attorney General Margery S. Bronster announced the release of a Crime Trend Series report describing major increases in motor vehicle thefts in Hawaii in the 1990’s. Highlights include the following:

  • Hawaii’s motor vehicle theft rate more than doubled in the four year period 1992-1995. As a result, the state’s ranking for motor vehicle theft among the 50 states and the District of Columbia increased from 36th in 1991 to 8th in 1995.
  • The state’s increasing motor vehicle theft rate during 1992-1995 is attributable to a large rate increase in the City and County of Honolulu. The increase in Honolulu was dramatic. The neighbor island counties posted decreases in motor vehicle theft rates, with Hawaii down 14%, Maui down 4%, and Kauai County down 6%.
  • Arrests for motor vehicle theft in the state essentially kept pace with the increase in offenses between 1985-1994, but an 11% increase in arrests in 1995 was overwhelmed by a 28% increase in offenses.
  • Arrests of both males and females for motor vehicle theft peak in the 15-19 years age group that includes both juveniles and adults. The female percentage of arrestees increased from 13% in 1985 to 23% in 1995.
  • Motor vehicle theft complaints cleared by arrest declined by almost half in Honolulu, from just over 17% of the complaints received in 1991 to about 9% in 1995. Kauai and Hawaii posted smaller decreases, while Maui reported an increase.
  • The most stolen vehicle make on Oahu in 1995 was Honda, followed closely by Toyota. These makes were, respectively, third and first in total registrations on the island. Ford was second in registrations but only ranked as the 26th most stolen make. This demonstrates that the prevalence of certain makes does not necessarily factor into the likelihood that they will be stolen.
  • In the City & County of Honolulu, two Waipahu-area police beats ranked highest on a list of those hardest hit by motor vehicle theft in 1995. Third through fifth place rankings were held, respectively, by beats in the East Pearl City, Salt Lake, and Aiea Heights/Pearlridge areas.
  • Vehicle thefts could be expected to decrease if more members of the concerned public were to install anti-theft devices or if the auto manufacturers could be persuaded to make fundamental changes in vehicle security. More realistically, clear identification of major types of motor vehicle theft might allow more focused efforts towards addressing the causes of this crime. An example is theft for re-identification and sale, which might be addressed by a commercial auto theft unit of police detectives to locate chop shops.

The report also details Congressional efforts to deal with the high level of motor vehicle thefts across the nation. It suggests that Congressional action has been necessitated by economic disincentives to increase vehicle security among automobile manufacturers, insurers, and financiers.

Murder in Hawaii: 1992-1997

Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 1998)

Attorney General Margery S. Bronster announced the release of a Crime Trend Series report that examines statewide murder statistics from the last six years.  “Although murder occurs in Hawaii at less than half the national rate, it is the most serious criminal offense and warrants an ongoing analysis of the available data,” Bronster noted. Included are statistics on annual and monthly murder totals, county distribution, means of death, circumstance, and victim and offender age, sex, substance use, and relationship.

Report highlights include the following:

  • There were 280 murders in Hawaii during the 1992-1997 period, ranging from a low of 40 in 1996 to a high of 56 in 1995, with an average of 46.7 murders per year.  There were 47 murders in 1997.
  • Almost 80% of the victims knew their killer(s).
  • Murders typically involved male victims and offenders in their early- to mid- thirties, occurred between people who knew one another but were not related, arose from non-domestic arguments, and most often involved the use of either firearms or bare hands and feet as specific murder weapons.  Combined, simple weapons such as hands and feet, knives, clubbing objects, and asphyxiation methods accounted for 59% of the murders.  Firearms comprised most of the remainder, with “other” methods (motor vehicles, drugs/poison, fire) accounting for a small proportion.
  • Gender played a significant role in the Hawaii murders.  Compared to female victims, male victims were much more numerous, somewhat younger overall, and more often in the 18-29 year age group.  They were also much more likely to be killed in a non-domestic argument, more apt to be shot to death, and much more likely to be killed by a friend, acquaintance, neighbor, or co-worker.  Female victims were comparatively older, more likely to be beaten to death, and were much more often killed in domestic arguments and by those to whom they were romantically related.  While male victims outnumbered female victims by almost two-to-one overall, half of child victims were female.
  • On average, offenders were slightly younger than victims.  Male offenders outnumbered female offenders by almost twelve-to-one, were older, 10% killed children, and 30% killed females.  In contrast, 30% of female offenders killed children and 50% killed females.  There was no strong relationship between offender sex and weapon choice.
  • Offenders and/or victims were confirmed to have used alcohol and/or other dangerous drugs immediately prior to 44% of the murders.

The Attorney General stated that, “Perhaps most troubling is how frequently substance use was associated with these murders.  While alcohol and other dangerous drugs don’t cause murderópeople do thatówe cannot ignore how often substance use and violence go hand-in- hand. Also, while murders committed by strangers capture our attention, it is important to understand that the vast majority of murders in Hawaii occur between people who know one another.”

Restoring Justice in Hawaii

(June 1998)

In April 1998, the Crime Prevention & Justice Assistance Division surveyed several of Hawaii’s criminal justice agencies. Survey recipients were asked to provide contact information and descriptions for each of their criminal justice programs, and to “rank” each program on six categories of indicators that have been suggested as defining characterstics of restorative justice-oriented programs. Information about 78 unique programs has been compiled for this report.

Restraining Orders Sought in the City & County of Honolulu

(June 1999)

Acting Attorney General Thomas R. Keller announced the release of a new crime report, Restraining Orders Sought in the City & County of Honolulu. The study provides a statistical snapshot of District Court and Family Court restraining orders, and recommends ways to improve services to the affected parties. “As we get better information on intimate and acquaintance violence in Hawaii, we become better at addressing these problems,” Keller stated. “We hope that the courts, police, legislature, and service agencies will be able to use this information to collectively improve the system response.”

The study was based on a sample of 630 restraining order cases filed in Honolulu’s Family Court and District Court during July 1 – December 31, 1996. Data on defendants, plaintiffs, circumstances, granted and denied petitions, and the types and durations of court-ordered protection were collected. The cases were then tracked through December 31, 1998 for subsequent restraining order violations and other police reports, arrests, and convictions.

About 71% of Family Court restraining order petitions were granted, with 44% of these to be in effect for the maximum 36-month period. In District Court, 56% of the petitions were granted, with 77% of these to last for three years. Less than two-fifths of Family Court defendants (38%), and no District Court defendants, were required to attend programs or counseling for domestic violence intervention, anger management, or substance abuse.

Through December 31, 1998, 50% of the Family Court defendants and 25% of the District Court defendants (256 total) were suspects in almost 800 police reports for alleged crimes against the plaintiffs. In addition, 50% of the Family Court defendants and 38% of the District Court defendants were arrested for various interpersonal-type offenses allegedly committed against plaintiffs or other persons.

Twenty-nine percent (29%) of the Family Court defendants and 18% of the District Court defendants (153 total) had at least one alleged restraining order violation reported to police; many of these had repeat violations. Of the 378 total violations reported during the study period, 54% were pursued for prosecution and 37% resulted in convictions by December 31, 1998. Counseling was included in the sentence for 67% of the Family Court convictions and 33% of the District Court convictions. The sentences included incarceration in 35% and 39% of the Family Court and District Court violation convictions, respectively.

Although little demographic information was available, it could be determined that the majority of plaintiffs were females (83% in Family Court and 63% in District Court). Defendants were generally male (85% and 66%, by respective court), most often Hawaiian/Part-Hawaiian or Caucasian, and on average 35 to 37 years of age.

Plaintiffs commonly reported a variety of forms of abuse perpetrated against them by defendants, including shoving, grabbing, slapping, hitting, choking, threats to kill, and property destruction. Defendants’ reported access to or use of weapons against the plaintiffs was rare.

Individual Family Court judges granted restraining orders between 44% and 100% of the time; this difference was statistically significant, meaning that it was greater than could be expected to occur by chance. The difference between District Court judges, who granted restraining orders between 58% and 77% of the time, was not statistically significant.

The report offers several recommendations. The courts are urged to coordinate training, policies, and procedures to increase consistency in managing restraining order cases, assist law enforcement, and facilitate joint jurisdiction; plaintiff advocates, and other services similar to those provided by Family Court, should be provided by District Court; better demographic and background information on plaintiffs and defendants should be collected; the feasibility of permanent restraining orders should be explored; the use of mandatory sentencing, fines, and other sanctions for defendants’ restraining order violations and related interpersonal offenses should be expanded; domestic violence intervention and substance abuse treatment for defendants, and alternative dispute resolution services for appropriate District Court cases should be considered; local policymakers should consider the development of a coordinated community response model to integrate and provide more seamless response to intimate and acquaintance violence; and outcome and evaluation research should be continued.

The study was funded and overseen by the Department of the Attorney General’s Research & Statistics Branch and conducted by Martha Ross, a community consultant, and Professor Valli Kanuha of the University of Hawaii’s School of Social Work. Data and assistance were provided by Honolulu’s Family Court and District Court, the Honolulu Police Department, and the City & County of Honolulu Department of the Prosecuting Attorney.

Survival on Parole: Post-Prison Adjustment and the Risk of Returning to Prison in the State of Hawaii

(May 1999)

Acting Attorney General Thomas R. Keller announced the release of a new crime report, Survival on Parole: A Study of Post-Prison Adjustment and the Risk of Returning to Prison in the State of Hawaii. The study provides a statistical snapshot of individuals paroled during Fiscal Year 1995-96, and an analysis of revocation rate patterns for these parolees up to three years subsequent to their release from prison. The findings indicate that an increased rate of parole revocation and return to prison is associated with and projectable from: a history of drug use, a prior parole record, the inability to maintain consistent employment, an unwillingness to accept responsibility for personal change, and, to a lesser degree, having a criminal record that began at an early age. “Our correctional system has multiple purposes, from that of increasing public safety to helping lawbreaking individuals become viable and contributing members of society. The safety of citizens is paramount, and in a time of limited corrections resources we need a clear assessment of those who succeed, or fail, on parole,” Keller stated.

The study was conducted by the University of Hawaii’s Social Science Research Institute, and analyzed data from the Hawaii Paroling Authority, the Department of Public Safety, and the Department of the Attorney General. The Attorney General’s Research & Statistics Branch funded the project through a grant from the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, and published the final report.

From the records of 604 inmates released to parole between July 1, 1995 and June 30, 1996, it was found that two-thirds were released for the first time while one-third had at least one prior parole experience. The majority of parolees were males in their 30s who had been committed to prison for crimes of violence or felony property offenses. Over two-thirds were rated as having a serious drug problem, while another 22% had at least some measurable problem.

During the two- to three-year follow-up period, 48.2% of those released were returned to custody and had their parole revoked. Most of the revocations were for not fully adhering to specified parole conduct (e.g., curfews), versus the commission of new crimes. Roughly 7 out of 10 (70.7%) of those released to parole did not incur any criminal convictions during the follow-up period, 17.9% had exclusively misdemeanor and/or petty misdemeanor convictions, and 11.4% of the study cohort had one or more felony convictions. Revocation rates were markedly higher for those who had previously been on parole: 39% for first-time parolees, 57% for second-time parolees, and over 70% for those on parole for the third time or more.

Preliminary statistical differences in revocation rates were observed for other variables, such as: first criminal conviction by age 24, criminal record with two or more prior felonies, family/marital problems, ethnicity, and gender. However, of all the items studied, five factors were found to extend the explanations beyond modest pattern differences, and actually provide the basis for projecting parole revocation. When one or more of these characteristics was true for parolees, parole revocations occurred more quickly and in greater sum during the three-year period following release from prison:

  • The current release is not the first parole experience for the individual.
  • The parolee was a regular drug user prior to the last prison sentence.
  • The parolee was not employed for at least 60 percent of the year prior to the last prison sentence.
  • The parolee’s prison sentence was for a property offense.
  • The parolee was rated as being unwilling to accept responsibility for personal change.

Recommendations include the advancement of more effective drug-use abatement and relapse prevention programs, increased job training and employment assistance for prisoners and parolees, support for an adequate computerized management information system at the Hawaii Paroling Authority, and extended studies of individuals released to parole in the future.

Weapons Used In Violent Crimes, State of Hawaii, 1993-1998

(November 1999)

This report provides a statistical portrait of weapons used in violent crimes in Hawaii during the past six years (the entire period for which these data have been available). Included are statistics for Murder, Robbery, and Aggravated Assault, the combination of these offenses for 1998 and the 1993-1998 period. This is an exclusive online publication.